This chapter will teach you:
How to configure the MOB-IP-SIM for use
How to set up your wireless device for testing
How to initiate a Mobile IP connection
This section outlines the setup of the the MIP-5800 and MIP-5850 simulators. As the MIP-5800 has a reduced functionality when compared to the MIP-5850, some pages are available only to users of the MIP-5850, and will be so specified as appropriate. Access to all operational configuration is accomplished by these pages. Some information retrieval will be accomplished by accessing the Log Pages as described in Chapter 5
Once the initial IP address is set, record the provisioning information in sections [A] and [C] of Appendix E) for the Mobile IP enabled wireless device that you plan to test. A manufacturer's programming tool is typically required to access this information.
After pointing your web browser to http://mobipsimaddress, where mobipsimaddress is the address recorded in section [B] of the worksheet, you should see the page indicated in Figure 3-1. Access to the simulator documentation, debugging and operation logs, copyright information, and demonstration web content are also available on this page.
Click on the Figure 3-2. From here the specific forms used for Network, PPP, Mobile IP, and NAT configuration may be reached. Additionally, the present configuration may be downloaded to the controlling PC, or a previously saved configuration file uploaded to the MOB-IP-SIM. Two commands are also accessed here, namely and .menu link to reach the main configuration menu page shown in
Clicking on the MOB-IP-SIM. This action, which is equivalent to a simulator power cycle, will restart the simulator following a operating system upgrade and reset the machine to the web-based configuration state. Clicking on the button will return all configuration parameters altered by manual or scripted AT commands to the web-based configuration state. Remember that the web-based configuration sets all parameters aside from realdate, PPP link, and script tcpdump commands and that the web-based configuration values will be reloaded following a MOB-IP-SIM power-cycle, , or commands.button reboots the
The next steps walk through each configuration form. You should carefully review each form during the initial setup so that you will know where the parameters are stored if you need to modify something later. The other network settings can be configured or reconfigured once the MOB-IP-SIM has a valid IP network address.
Click on the MIP-5800 and the MIP-5850 .link to display the first configuration page, which is the same in the
Configure each network parameter as indicated in the following text. Consult with your I.T. department if you are not familiar with IP address management or if you don't know how your local network is configured.
Select static or dynamic (DHCP assigned) IP addressing for the MOB-IP-SIM unit. This should already be configured correctly if the MOB-IP-SIM Manager has been used for the initial LAN setup. Static mode is recommended for most test environments.
DHCP Operation: If the MOB-IP-SIM has been set to DHCP mode, the IP address, netmask, broadcast address, gateway address, and DNS server parameters will automatically be assigned and displayed in this form.
Default = mip. Enter an alphanumeric name for the MOB-IP-SIM. This name is used by some DHCP servers to allow network addressing by name rather than direct IP addressing. This setting is not critical.
If a static IP configuration is used, then this is the static IP address of the MOB-IP-SIM.
If a static IP configuration is used, then this is the subnet mask for the local network. Hosts with IP addresses matching the MOB-IP-SIM's address in these bits are contacted directly; others are contacted through the gateway.
This is the address of a local network router used to reach the Internet. This value only applies to the static IP mode since DHCP mode automatically sets this address. The address must be on the local network and the net mask must be compatible with the simulator net mask and IP address. If you have an isolated network, leave this field blank.
This is the IP address of a Domain Name Server that provides name lookups for your network. This value only applies in the static IP mode since DHCP mode automatically obtains this address. Type ipconfig /all | more at the Windows command prompt to determine this address on your network.
Click thebutton to save the current information and then click to go to the next configuration page, which varies depending upon the model.
The PPP configuration form shown in the following figure configures the test Simple IP data connections. Mobile IP connections also depend on the PPP connection; however, the PPP server address and TCP packet logging are the only parameters that are involved in a Mobile IP connection.
When enabled, the MOB-IP-SIM sends an IP-Address option in its initial IPCP Configuration-Request message. Turn this on for Simple IP, off for Mobile IP.
Default is 192.168.14.1. This is an arbitrary address assigned to the simulated PDSN. The default value should work as long as it does not conflict with other existing network addresses. The address is used by Simple IP as the PDSN address.
The mobile may use this address to contact the built-in content servers, even on a Mobile IP call. This feature is useful if the mobile is attached to an Ethernet-connected PC, as the PC can contact this address only through the mobile station so a successful transfer means the airlink is working.
The MOB-IP-SIM uses this address internally to refer to the PPP interface, so it must not conflict with any other address the MOB-IP-SIM will need to use.
Default is 192.168.14.3. This address will be assigned to the mobile station for a Simple IP connection and is unlimited as long as it does not conflict with other existing network addresses. Applies only to Simple IP.
The MOB-IP-SIM uses this address internally to route packets to the mobile, so it must not conflict with any other address the MOB-IP-SIM will need to use.
Default is ON. Check this option to cause the simulator to propose PPP authentication during LCP.
Default is ON. Check this option to allow the MOB-IP-SIM to continue a PPP connection even if the mobile rejects the proposed PPP authentication (but not if the mobile agrees to authenticate and then fails authentication).
When enabled, the MOB-IP-SIM logs all TCP packets instead of only those that have TCP flags set. This can help with debugging but slows down data transfer.
When checked, the MOB-IP-SIM disables all forms of PPP compression (Van Jacobson and CCP).
This is the Authentication name that will be used for dial-up networking on a PC. Generally used only with Simple IP.
This is the Authentication password (or secret) that will be used for dial-up networking on a PC. Generally used only with Simple IP. If the secret begins with 0x (first character is a zero), it is interpreted as a hexadecimal string (0x616263 is exactly equivalent to abc). It follows that if your secret starts with 0x, you will need to type something that starts with 0x3078.
The MIP-5850 provides two additional parameters on its PPP configuration form as indicated by the following figure:
This is the IP address of a DNS server for the mobile or the attached PC to use. It applies to both Simple IP and Mobile IP. Leave it blank to omit the DNS-Server option from IPCP. This option is available only in the MIP-5850.
Default is OFF. Check this option to require the Password Authentication Protocol, in which case a username and password will be used to authenticate. Applies only to Simple IP. This option is available only in the MIP-5850 .
Default is OFF. Check this option to require the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. The username and password will be used to authenticate in this case. Applies only to Simple IP. This option is available only in the MIP-5850.
When completed, clickto store the parameters. Then click the link to go to the next configuration page, which varies depending upon the model.
The Mobile IP form sets values related to processing Mobile IP messages. The simulator only answers messages originating from the mobile's home address and only routes packets destined for the home address to the link.
Transfer the recorded Mobile IP provisioning information from section [A] of Appendix E to the appropriate parameters on the Mobile IP configuration page. Explanations of each field are provided here. The following parameters are available for both the MIP-5800 and MIP-5850 Mobile IP simulators.
Obtain this field from the worksheet, unless the recorded Home Address from the mobile is 0.0.0.0, in which case the mobile station is expecting a dynamic IP address assignment and a valid non-zero Home address should be entered. If the recorded Home Address is non-zero, then the recorded value should be entered into the Mobile Node home address field of the form. The address entered into the configuration form will be assigned to the mobile station in either case.
The Home agent configuration table represents independent Home Agents that are normally configured to act as the mobile stations Primary Home Agent (#1 entry) and Secondary Home Agent (#2 entry). The recorded data from section [A] of the Configuration Worksheet should be used to set the parameters in this table. When the simulator receives a registration request (RRQ) message, it searches the table in ascending order looking for a matching Home Agent IP address. When a match is found, a registration response (RRP) message is generated based on the parameters contained in that table entry. Table entries affect the response in various ways as indicated in the following. The MIP-5800 supports only one Home Agent.
Enter the IP address of the mobile's primary Home Agent. If the mobile is configured for dynamic home-agent addressing (0.0.0.0 or 255.255.255.255), enter any valid IP address here and the mobile will use it.
Default = 255.255.0.0. This netmask supports dynamic home agent address resolution according to RFC-3344 which states " . . . the mobile node MAY use dynamic agent address resolution to learn the address of its home agent. In this case, the mobile node MUST set the Home Agent field to the subnet-directed broadcast address of the mobile node's home network. Each home agent receiving such a Registration Request with a broadcast destination address MUST reject the mobile node's registration and SHOULD return a rejection Registration Reply indicating its unicast IP address for use by the mobile node in a future registration attempt."
This is the shared secret used for mobile to Home Agent authorization of the RRQ message. A mismatched secret will result in a response code = 131 (authentication failure) in the RRP. This field supports hexadecimal strings the same as the PPP password field.
Range [0 to 65535]. This is the numeric index related to the shared secret used for mobile to Home Agent authentication of the RRQ message. A mismatched SPI will result in a response code = 131 (authentication failure) in the RRP.
Normally set to match the Request verification-Secret, it can be mismatched to test mobile behavior due to invalid authenticator data in the RRP. A mismatch has no effect on the RRP response code, but the mobile should reject the reply. This field supports hexadecimal strings the same as the PPP password field.
Range [0 to 65535]. Normally set to match the Request verification-SPI previously documented. Can be mismatched to test the mobile stations behavior due to invalid authenticator data in the RRP. A mismatch has no effect on the RRP response code, but the mobile should reject the reply.
The following parameters are available only on the Mobile IP Configuration page of the MIP-5850 simulator as shown in the following figure.
Default is 1. This is a protocol behavior test parameter designed to disable (value = 0) spontaneous advertisements or to send multiple advertisements to the mobile station when the PPP link is established.
Default is 0.01. This is a protocol behavior test parameter designed to control the rate at which advertisements are sent. This parameter applies only if the number of Agent Advertisements is set to a value greater than 1.
Default is 0.01. This is a protocol behavior test parameter designed to delay the first advertisement after the PPP link comes up. This parameter applies only if the number of Agent Advertisements is set to a value greater than 0.
Default is blank or 0.0.0.0 (not set). The default value allows the Foreign Agent Care-of address in the Agent Advertisement to automatically contain the Ethernet IP address of the MOB-IP-SIM that normally acts as the FA. This default address comes from the Network Configuration page. Entering a specific non-zero address will override the normal address that is advertised in the FA care-of address field.
Default is 9000 seconds per IS-835B. This field defines the maximum period that the Advertisement is considered valid in the absence of further Advertisements. This value is included to test the mobile's action when the timeout expires.
Default is 0. This is a 32-bit number representing the preference level of the Router Address included in the Advertisement. A blank entry is treated as a 0.
Default is 600 sec. This is the longest lifetime that this agent claims to be willing to accept in a Registration Request. A value of 0xffff indicates infinity. The mobile station is required to re-register when this time expires. This field has no relation to the Lifetime field within the ICMP Router Advertisement portion of the Agent Advertisement.
Default is OFF. ON indicates registration with this foreign agent (or another foreign agent on this link) is required even when using a co-located care-of address.
Default is OFF. ON indicates the foreign agent will not accept registrations from additional mobile nodes.
Default is OFF. ON indicates this agent offers service as a home agent on the link on which this Agent Advertisement message is sent.
Default is ON. ON indicates this agent offers service as a foreign agent on the link on which this Agent Advertisement message is sent.
Default is OFF. ON indicates this agent implements receiving tunneled datagrams that use minimal encapsulation.
Default is OFF. ON indicates this agent implements receiving tunneled datagrams that use GRE encapsulation.
Default is OFF. The previous revision of the Mobile IP specification (RFC 2002) defined this bit to indicate support for Van Jacobson TCP header compression. ON may be used to check that the mobile station ignores this bit.
Default is OFF. ON indicates this Foreign Agent supports reverse tunneling.
If this option is enabled, the MOB-IP-SIM will respond to an otherwise valid Registration-Request to a directed broadcast address by sending a Registration-Accept message. If disabled, the MOB-IP-SIM will respond with a Registration-Reject with code 136 (unknown home agent address).
This is the AAA secret used for mobile to Home Agent authorization of the RRQ message. A mismatched secret will result in a response code = 144 (authentication failure) in the RRP. This field supports hexadecimal strings the same as the PPP password field.
Range [0 to 255]. Default is 0. This is used to control the code field in the RRP message sent by the Home Agent to the mobile station. An entry of 0 allows the simulator to function normally with automatic handling of authentication and time sync operations. Code 131 will be returned if authentication fails and code 133 will be returned if a time sync error is detected. Otherwise, code 0 will be returned indicating a successful registration. Non-zero positive values will override normal processing to force a specific code in the RRP message regardless of other conditions. The special case value of -1 is used to disable this Home Agent and the Registration Response message.
Range [0 to 65535 sec]. Default is 65535. The default value allows the simulator to automatically reply with the same value requested in the RRQ message for normal operation. All other values limit the registration lifetime contained in the RRP message response and are used to test the mobile station's compliance with the network-assigned lifetime. Note (ref: RFC-3344 3.4): A value of zero indicates that the mobile node has been deregistered.
Range [0 to 255]. Default is 129. This number indicates to the mobile which public key it should use for DMU. The default value corresponds to the DMU keypair supplied with the MOB-IP-SIM. This option is available only on the MIP-5850 with DMU.
Clickand then click the link to go to the next configuration page.
On the NAT configuration form, you may set up network address translations as required to conform to your network's or the mobile station's requirements. A common example is shown where the mobile accesses the internet using an HTTP proxy server at address 18.104.22.168 port 80. This server is not locally accessible, so the NAT is configured to direct these requests to the simulator's local proxy server at 127.0.0.1 port 8080.
Use the Proxy Server information from section [C] of Appendix E to set the NAT configuration if needed.
The MOB-IP-SIM can handle mobile traffic in two ways: translate all outgoing traffic so it appears to come from the MOB-IP-SIM (NAT mode) or make the mobile's address appear to be on the LAN (route mode). Select which you want here.
In NAT mode, the mobile's address appears only on the PPP link between the mobile and the MOB-IP-SIM, so nothing on the LAN or elsewhere needs to be able to reach this address. The address simply needs to be different from any address that the MOB-IP-SIM or mobile might need to reach for any other purpose. The safest choice for the mobile's address in this mode is some random address from the private address ranges of 10.x.x.x or 192.168.x.x.
In route mode, the MOB-IP-SIM forwards packets intact between the mobile and the LAN. Use this mode if you need to initiate connections from the LAN or internet to the mobile. In this mode, the mobile must have an address from the range used on the LAN. The MOB-IP-SIM will provide proxy ARP for the mobile's address on the LAN.
Enter an IP address and TCP or UDP port number that the mobile may attempt to connect to. Both TCP and UDP connections with the specified port number will be redirected. The port number may also be specified as a port range, such as 123-456. This means that port 123 is redirected to the "connect it to" port, 124 to the next port, and so on.
Enter an IP address and port number of the server that you would like the mobile to be connected to instead of the one it requested. The server will see the mobile's address as the source of the request messages, and the mobile will see the address it originally tried to contact as the source of the response messages.
When completed, clickand then click the link to go to the next configuration page.
The built-in HTTP proxy server can use an external proxy server, and it can modify the request URL before passing the request along to the content server. Use the HTTP proxy configuration to configure these features.
Some network configurations do not allow the MOB-IP-SIM to connect directly to HTTP servers on the Internet but do provide an HTTP proxy server to allow indirect connections. If you have such a network, obtain the details and put the URL for your proxy server here. For example, if your proxy server is at web-proxy.example.com on port 8888, use http://web-proxy.example.com:8888/ as the URL.
If the MOB-IP-SIM can contact HTTP servers directly, leave this entry blank.
Some mobile devices cannot display GIF images but can display PNGs. Check this box to have the HTTP proxy convert image formats.
When the mobile requests a URL that matches the regular expression in this column, the proxy server changes the part of the URL that matches the regular expression before requesting the page from the origin server.
The part of the request URL that matches the regular expression is changed to this entry. This entry is not a regular expression, but the $ and \ characters are special, as described below.
Some mobiles have hard-coded home-page URLs or expect the network to transform the request URL in some way. The HTTP proxy can handle either of these cases by transforming the URL. The left column contains a list of regular expressions that the proxy matches against the requested URL. If one of these regular expressions matches the URL, the proxy replaces the matched text with the corresponding text from the right column.
In a regular expression, letters and digits stand for themselves, but many punctuation marks have special meanings:
Table 3-1. Regular Expression Operators
|Operator||Description||Example||Matches||Does not match|
|.||Any one character||a.b||axb||axxb|
|()||Grouping: everything in parentheses is treated as a unit||a(bc)+d||abcbcd||abcbd|
|+||At least one of the previous thing||a.+c||abdefc||ac|
|*||Zero or more of the previous thing||a.*c||ac||ad|
|?||Optionally one of the previous thing||ab?c||ac||abbc|
|||Any one character from the set||[a-dx]+||acbdxaa||afd|
|[^]||Any one character not in the set||[^a-dx]+||efgtuv||efgatuv|
|\||Use the next character as a normal character||\.||.||x|
To be safe, put a \ before each punctuation mark unless you want to use its special meaning.
In the right column of the form, all characters stand for themselves except \ and $. You can use \1 through \9 to refer to the text matching first nine parenthesized groups from the original URL.
Table 3-2. URL Rewriting Examples
When completed, clickand then click the link to return to the Configuration Menu.